Why we publish two series of Chinese textbooks

The short answer is that, due to unique characteristics of Chinese language and its huge differences from most of other modern languages, we believe that the best way to approach the task of learning Chinese is through a clear separation between learning to interact orally and learning to read and write. 

The following is a more elaborate answer, along with some must known definitions.

What is Mandarin?

Among a number of dialects which are in active use today, such as Cantonese, Mandarin is the most widely spoken one in the Greater China Region, which includes mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. 

Mandarin Chinese is the modern standard Chinese, China’s official language. It is also referred to as “putonghua” (普通话, the common language), or “hanyu” (汉语, the language of the Han people), or “zhongwen” (中文, the language of China). In Taiwan, it is often called “huayu” (华语, the language of people of Chinese ethnicity), or “guoyu” (国语, the language of the country).

Simplified Chinese

There are two overlapping Chinese writing systems, simplified and traditional Chinese. The simplified Chinese is used in mainland China and Singapore, while the traditional Chinese in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. In Chinese media of other countries, such as in the US or Australia, it is common to see that both versions are used, which is a reflection of the historical roots of local communities. 

Both simplified and traditional Chinese are recognised worldwide. It is certainly an advantage to have some knowledge of both systems. However, from teaching and learning point of view, to learn both systems at the same time is too difficult. In Mandarin Express series and Chinese Reading and Writing series, the priority is given to simplified Chinese.


There have been many systems using Roman alphabet to reproduce the sounds of Chinese characters throughout history. And in Taiwan, there is a different system in use, called Zhuyin, which is a list of character-like symbols.

Today, the Hanyu Pinyin system, or pinyin, is the most recognised worldwide, and is also an efficient method of text input. This system can help students of many different language backgrounds.  Therefore, pinyin is included in Mandarin Express Intro and Basic Levels.

However, it is important to understand that pinyin is not a valid alternative to the writing system, neither does it lead to natural speech. Read Why learning Mandarin using (only) Pinyin will create more hurdles and The gulf between pinyin and Mandarin Chinese pronunciation for detailed explanations. 

The necessary separation of learning to interact orally from learning to read and write

Chinese literacy development is a time-consuming and challenging task. Learning oral interaction and its written form at the same time is overwhelming. For example a simple exchange of greetings, 你好吗 and 我很好, students must learn: 

  1. to recognise the written form of five characters, 你, 我, 好, 很, 吗; 
  2. to associate the pronunciation with the written form, “nǐ - 你”, “wǒ - 我”, “hǎo - 好”, “hěn - 很”, “ma - 吗”;
  3. to write these characters; 
  4. the meaning of each character; 
  5. the sentence structure;  
  6. to say these words aloud; 
  7. to recognise these words when hearing them. 

In order to make the learning fun and to have a better learning result,  it is necessary to disperse these tasks into smaller ones over a period of time, hence, a separation of learning oral interaction from its written form. 

It is only when students have developed substantial skills in Chinese reading and writing, can they start learning oral communications together with its written form. 

Two series of Chinese textbooks

Mandarin Express series and Chinese Reading and Writing series do not separate verbal interaction from its written form mechanically, i.e. It is not that one series teaches in pinyin, while the other teaches the same script in characters. The relation between the two series is rather like a simulation of Chinese children learning Chinese. After developing some conversational abilities, students start learning how to read and write. 

At Mandarin Express Intro and Basic Levels, when students are developing conversational abilities, they use texts with pinyin. At Chinese Reading and Writing 1-6, when students are developing their reading and writing skills, they use texts in characters only. 

Chinese Reading and Writing series focuses on 320 Chinese characters, which is a small number comparing to 3000 - 4000 characters normally required to achieve Chinese literacy. Moreover, the selection of these 320 characters is not only based on the character frequency list, but also on Mandarin Express series. Thus, there is a connection between the two series, creating a re-enforcing learning environment. 

After students have a good grasp of Chinese reading and writing and the ability to carry on nice social conversations, they can continue their Chinese study in the subsequent Mandarin Express Pre-Intermediate Level, which combines the learning of spoken communication with its written form.


April Zhang
Chinese Teacher
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